Motivation assures or enhances a strong commitment to achieve your
Successful project management requires an establishment of an environment
in which team members work together toward a common objective. For you to
achieve this, you must know what motivates your team.
team members are motivated, they willingly perform tasks for your
Motivation is an energizing force that directs people towards a goal.
Underlying these energizing forces of motivation are drives, desires,
Reward and Punishment: The Carrot and the Stick
individuals are motivated because of a perceived reward (carrot)
or punishment (stick). Money, a promotion, job satisfaction and
recognition are types of rewards. Fear of losing your job, demotion, and
public humiliation are types of punishment.
Rewards lose their effectiveness as motivators over time. If an
individual is motivated by a reward and other people (thought to be
less-deserving) receive similar rewards, the reward is viewed as an
There is no doubt that fear of punishment is used to increase performance
in the short run. In the long run, fear is a losing proposition because
you suffer unnecessary stress and ultimately strive to escape fear and
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's theory, five types of needs form a hierarchy. Please review this
overview of Maslow's model:
Self Actualization (Pursue, Inner talent, Creativity, Fulfillment)
(Achievement, Mastery, Recognition, Respect)
Needs of Love,
affection and belongingness (friends, family, spouse, lover)
(safety, stability, freedom from fear
basic needs of survival and security are met, individuals attempt
to generate satisfaction and self-actualization.
Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory
The motivation-hygiene theory consists of dissatisfiers and satisifiers.
Dissatisfiers occur when hygiene factors are absent. Hygiene factors
maintain an individual. For example, air conditioning is a hygiene
factor in a hot, stuffy office. Its presence does not generate
motivation, but its absence is a dissatisfier.
need for leadership exists because of a need to follow. Team members will
follow you if they believe you can help satisfy their goals.
Leadership is an important competency for a project manager. The goal of
a project manager is to instill a spirit of performance in a project
succeed in leadership, emphasize employee strengths and neutralize
are basically three types of leaders:
autocratic leader uses authority and discipline without hesitancy. Known
as a Theory X manager, this individual believes that project
team members consider work distasteful and must be managed very closely.
as a Theory Y manager, a participative leader believes that
work is a natural, fundamental human activity. This individual involves
project team members to reach success.
leader uses a situational approach (directing, coaching, delegating, and
empowering) to great effectiveness.